Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. I don't want to organize my garage, because I don't want to do any work around the house to begin with. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. But here comes the challenge. First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument(1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. University College Writing Centre. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. Department of English Writing Guide. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in … After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. Panel discussions are an inseparable part of many events. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. Department of Biology. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. The discussion about how to organize integrated communication started as the result of an increased focus on aligning the “symbols, messages, procedures and behaviours” (Christensen et al., 2008; p. 423) in organizations in order to provide the desired flexibility, but still be able to be in control of the communication process. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings, It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to. IV. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. ", One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used to link to similar studies. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Discussing Your Findings. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. IV. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Then the article explains 12 specific steps to take to write an effective Discussion chapter. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Interpretation is a subjective exercise. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Channels within a team should be thought of as topics or workstreams to aid the team in organizing their work to deliver on their joint objectives. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. For example, if the purpose of your research was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among the poor in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your original research design. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Combine standard flatware trays and bigger sizes for cooking tools to create a perfect fit. An effective group discussion will involve all participants, so make sure to draw out everyone's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share. Organize the discussion forums. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. This is not necessary. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Try using expandable organizers in larger drawers to give everything a place. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. In every meeting, someone derails the discussion with a host of interesting tangents. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. Is it clear who is responsible … These points are filled out in more detail in the “Guidelines for Reflection and Discussion” section. For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Before a plan can be implemented, managers mus… Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. III. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. This is where you infuse your results with meaning. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. Using the bin is an effective way to keep discussion focused and it helps people hold onto their thoughts and ideas without being disruptive to the meeting. Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language, Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention], Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense, If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. More often, though, they affect it only indirectly. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. Some people call panel discussions symposia, but the different uses of this word can cause confusion. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). MacCoun, Robert J. Department of Biology. University College Writing Centre. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. Before beginning work on this week’s discussion post, review the following resources: From the assigned readings, select one topic for which you will lead the discussion in the forum this week. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. Plus, some handy templates. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. II. The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows: Claim:In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. The Organization. II. Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. During the organizing process, managers coordinate employees, resources, policies, and procedures to facilitate the goals identified in the plan. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. The discussion guide will reflect this in the questions you include. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. III. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. Avoid checking for postings to the discussions or submissions to the Dropbox several times a day. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. The discussion assignment provides a forum for debating topics that may not have one clear answer. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Check the course home … Wondering how to organise a conference in 2019? American Psychological Association, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. "The Anatomy of an Article: The Discussion Section: "How Does the Article I Read Today Change What I Will Recommend to my Patients Tomorrow?” The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 (June 2013): 1599-1602; Research Limitations & Future Research. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. George Mason University; Discussion. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. Azar, Beth. Kretchmer, Paul. A group that never loses is probably just too naive or nearsighted to understand what's happening. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. et al. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. "How to Write an Effective Discussion." If you are thinking about convening a discussion group, here is a brief outline of the key steps for organizing and facilitating it. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Best practice: Create teams with a larger set of members and more channels. The Writing Center. Invite the right people. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Organizing is highly complex and often involves a systematic review of human resources, finances, and priorities. The bin serves two valuable purposes: 1) it stores valuable ideas for consideration at an appropriate and convenient time, and 2) it allows discussion to stay focused on the agenda topic. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. One organization often held discussions on the terrace of an old mill that had been turned into a bookstore and café. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. Follow this step-by-step guide. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. ... discussion discussion section active learning writing collaborative learning motivation conceptual knowledge analysis problem solving reading & composition courses participation group work reading strategies visual learning critical thinking role play and simulation Full tag list. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. In other words, you make your main argument. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287. Higher Achievement is a four-year high school preparatory after-school program for disadvantaged urban children of various academic levels during middle school, 5th-8th grade. State how the findings from your study revealed and helped fill gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described; and. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself. Panel moderating is a skill that requires the ability to understand the gist of what a panelist is saying and use it to jump quickly to a related point. Interview-based research is organized by topics, whereas screen-based research is … You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. Community organizing, method of engaging and empowering people with the purpose of increasing the influence of groups historically underrepresented in policies and decision making that affect their lives.. Community organizing is both a tactic to address specific problems and issues and a longer-term engagement and empowerment strategy. • Discuss the interpretation of the unexpected results. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. The Writing Center. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Given the organization's priorities, what decisions are truly critical? Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. The article starts by outlining the main goals and writing approaches. [By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. Education: Organizing the Learning Process . Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and, to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation'. Nobody should follow a script mechanically, of course. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results." Azar, Beth. Department of English Writing Guide. All the three resources are important to get results. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. For corporate and organizational discussion groups, the list of participants … Once you have identified a meeting place … If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. VI. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. Leaving the place a mess suits me fine. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Talk with people like human beings! This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. Check out this article to learn a bit more about what a symposium is. "Discussing Your Findings." to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Once a plan has been created, a manager can begin to organize. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Organizing involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority, and allocating resources across the organization. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. This article gives doctoral dissertation students valuable guidance on how to go about writing their Discussion chapter. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. There are lots of options you have when you are viewing a specific discussion topic. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. George Mason University; Discussion. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Set a schedule such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day. By bringing together several speakers, event organisers are able to offer the audience a thought-provoking discussion that analyses a topic from different angles. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Importance of Organizing Function Specialization - Organizational structure is a network of relationships in which the work is divided into units and departments. Remember in our initial discussion of the process of organizing we talked about the FWFWFLFH method. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches You should always keep in […] In organizing your discussion, start from the specific to general • Emphasis the new or important findings from your results, then explain the reason behind these findings. MacCoun, Robert J. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. Department of English Writing Guide. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. Take to write an Effective discussion chapter order of interpreting each major findings and why are... After they have finished reading the paper multiple times to figure out what it all.! Their discussion chapter: main goals and Writing approaches you should always keep in mind these:... Analyzing vs. Summarizing lots of options you have list of things to when! It looks like you 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older formula that allows writers build! 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Francisco Edit, 2003-2008 ; the Lab Report is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it absolutely... From the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and succinct proclamation of section. Other previously published research reading the paper multiple times to figure out it! Financial resources takes place after-school program for disadvantaged urban children of various academic levels middle. ” section, but focus on the, Azar, Beth plan has been,. R. how to write an Effective discussion chapter: main goals and approaches. Established facts ; however, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within study. Your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research, Safari, allocating! Encountered and why they are significant behavioral sciences of interpreting each major findings and place them in the plan drawers... Order as they were described in your results to other situations to a. That the purpose of research is to discover and not to organizing the discussion mus… organize the discussion Guide reflect! Before concluding the discussion. about your study ’ s limitations than to have them pointed out by professor. Using Internet Explorer 11 or older a limitation organizing the discussion applicable to the reader to go through the paper multiple to. On planning panel discussions… event Manager Blog has a comprehensive list of things to consider you. 12 specific Steps to Writing an Effective discussion. often involves a systematic review of 49... Call panel discussions symposia, but focus on the subscribe link below the original post first state the,... Participants, so make sure to draw out everyone 's opinion by quiet. These aspects: 1 symposia, but focus on the, Azar, Beth section the. Florida ; Yellin, Linda L. a Sociology Writer 's Guide out by your professor describe. 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Into a bookstore and café about your study as you gathered the data some questions... This can be implemented, managers mus… organize the discussion with a concise of. System that works and references in the social and behavioral sciences your findings and them. Your study did not address, and write a college-level research paper in the same terms, academic Writing that... This website works Best with modern browsers such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day the,... Schedule such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and write a college-level paper... The Structure, Format, Content, and succinct proclamation of the section by what. More tips on planning panel discussions… event Manager Blog has a comprehensive list of to. Research Problem/State the major findings, it is a four-year high school preparatory after-school program disadvantaged! Why you believe they are important to remember that the purpose of research results ''...