Depiction of the Battle of Samugarh in 1658, which was decisive in the Mughal war of succession between the sons of Shah Jahan while he was unwell. So at the battlefield of Khajua (near Allahabad), Shah Shuja encamped himself and being an intelligent person adopted a new technique of warfare. Aurangzeb came to power after winning the war of succession and by defeating his three brothers a) Dara b) Shuja c) Askari d) Murad He approached Aurangzeb that in case pardon is granted to him, he would show an unguarded ferry around 40 miles away to the east. Jaswant Singh, as a supporter of Aurangzeb, had been given the command of the Rajpur wing of Aurangzeb’s army. By the time these armies advanced towards Agra, Shahjahan was perfectly alright. They arrogated to themselves the honour of being the defenders of Islam.”. This was deliberate on the part of Mirza Raja as he was sympathetic to Aurangzeb and unhappy with Dara. Whatever Mughal force was left at Agra was now led by Dara Shukoh to Samugarh. No sooner the news of Aurangzeb’s death reached Rajputana Ajit Singh recovered Jodhpur, his ancestral capital by expelling the Mughal garrison there. The water supply to the fort from the Jamuna was cut. Thus the Battle of Samugarh was fought on 29th May. For Ishtiyaq H. Quraishi also the war of succession was a tussle between the liberal policy of Akbar and the Orthodoxy. 2Early Years chapter abstractThis chapter details the first four decades of Aurangzeb's life, including his princely education and far-flung imperial postings under his father, Shah Jahan. Dara fled. [3] Azam Shah and the other royals who died in battle were buried in Humayun's Tomb, Delhi. This was also a weakening of position at Agra: a strategic mistake and error. [7] Ahsan Khan ignored warnings by close friends that Kam Bakhsh would arrest him, which then occurred and he was imprisoned and his property seized. Due to his ill health Shahjahan was constrained to nominate Dara Shukoh as his successor in the presence of the nobles. 2. Shah Jahan had several sons, to whom he gave the governorship of a province. [8] Kam Bakhsh replied, thanking him "without either explaining or justifying [his actions]". Dara believed and along with Shahnawaz Khan left Gujarat for Ajmer. They rapidly marched towards Agra. They agreed that after the victory they would occupy Agra and the two brothers would share the victory. To reach Dholpur the army of Aurangzeb and Murad had to cross the river Chambal. During the battle Dara fought against Aurangzeb and Murad. She says the battle of succession fought among the brothers – Dara, Aurangzeb, Murad and Shuja – “is an origin myth of the subcontinent’s present, seen as a crucial turning point in … Discarding the usual formation of the army, he arranged his armed forces in one line – vanguard, left, right, and centre were avoided. In the meantime Kam Bakhsh moved to Bijapur where he established his own empire. At one point, if Manucci is to be believed, Aurangzeb thought to leave the elephant and instead ride a horse. Qanungo in his book on Dara Shukoh, infact goes on to quote Prince Akbar who in 1681 remarked: “Perhaps it has not been brought to your notice that Dara Shukoh was in reality prejudiced against and hostile to, this race (i.e. Aurangzeb suggested to Jaswant Singh that he should not stop the princes from going to Agra and should abstain himself from bloodshed. Shah Shuja declared himself in Bengal. Rivalry of the Rani army of Aurangzeb and Murad was fought on May 29, 1658. Rather, Khushhal was remembered as the protagonist in a shocking scandal that supernaturally sealed Shah Jahan’s fate:— to be overthrown by his son Aurangzeb in the Mughal War of Succession, 1657–8. [9], When Shah reached Hyderabad on 28 June 1708, he learned that Kam Bakhsh had attacked Machhlipatnam (Bandar) in an attempt seize over three million rupees' worth of treasure hidden in its fort. Aurangzeb and his younger brother Murad had just defeated Dara Sikoh at … After the Battle of Samugarh a new situation had arisen. Fourthly, the Deccan problem separated Aurangzeb and Shahjahan. He saw the results of this. But Jai Singh continued to pursue Shuja upto Bihar and evaded the orders of the emperor to return before the Battle of Samugarh. Weakness of the Nobility: Mughal’s noble were well known for their loyalty but war of successor degenerated the nobility. Jaswant Singh thus launched a sudden attack on the army of Aurangzeb at the appointed time; a great hue and cry arose in the camp of Aurangzeb as the attack was unexpected. So a charge was brought that he had killed his diwan Ali Naq. He sent the best troops of the Imperial force along with his son under the effective command of such renowned generals as Mirza Raja Jai Singh and Daler Khan. When Ali Naqi of Gujarat asked him to desist and refused to cooperate, he was murdered by Murad. But, although renouncing all claim to the kingdom, I nevertheless consider myself bound to impart my sentiments to you, my friend, whom I have always tenderly loved. According to Aqil Khan Razi, an agreement was also signed between Murad and Aurangzeb through which they decided to oppose Dara. The slogan which was to be raised was that a heretic exercised all powers at court and so they were moving to free the emperor from the clutches of a heretic! “Every clan of Rajasthan contributed its share to the band of heroes who sacrificed their lives in their master’s service (swami-dharma).”. Jaswant was twice appointed as governor of Gujarat in spite of his being a traitor. The pious ruler of an Islamic state replaced the seasoned statesman of a mixed kingdom; Hindus became subordinates, not colleagues, and the Marathas, like the southern Muslim kingdoms, were marked for annexation rather than containment.The first overt sign of change was the reimposition of the jizya, or … He infact cites Manucci and Sadiq Khan for this contention. He exercised supreme authority but issued orders in the name of Shahjahan. Few decades in the 17th Century have seen such hectic campaigns as the first 10 years of Aurangzeb’s reign! This was the direct consequence of the War of Succession. But this support did not remain constant. His three sons Bahadur Shah I, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Muhammad Kam Bakhsh fought each other for the throne. Shahjahan was thus forced to appear at the jharokha on 14th September. This became a cause of resentment among the rest of his three children, who started to unite against Dara on different occasions. Thus on 29th May when the battle of Samugarh was fought, instead of it being a battle between the emperor and the ‘rebels’ it was a battle between princes. Whether the support of the contending princes was divided on communal and sectarian considerations, or whether the supporters of different princes consisted of all sort of people cutting across religious considerations? This weakened the Mughal Empire, especially after Aurangzeb. He says that sovereign is the shadow of God; while the khalqullah, i.e., the people, are the creation of God. Now he is being referred to as the ‘Prince of Heretics’! The result was that the fort was captured and Shahjahan was imprisoned. The author explains how Dara’s life stimulates curiosity among people, even now. [citation needed] Mughal victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 3.2 million square kilometres, with a population estimated as being between 100 million and 150 million. Shah Shuja proceeded by rapid marches from Bengal. He then conquered Kulbarga and Wakinkhera. However it is Abul Fazl Mamuri, and he too speaks of only 20 ‘commanders’ and not ‘muslim commanders’! A dispute arose between Mumin Khan and Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jung over who had captured them, with Rafi-us-Shan ruling in favour of the latter. “Aurangzeb won due to the support of the Hindus and Rajputs. 5. According to Irvine, when he was "weakened by the loss of blood", Shah took him and his son Bariqullah prisoner. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. So just to justify this act, Aurangzeb raised the religious slogan that he being a mulhid should be executed. The development of Islamic thought in India in respect of monarchy is beside the point here. Shahnawaz Safawi had also been detained forcibly by Aurangzeb. Due to this rumours spread that Shahjahan had died. Shuja, the second eldest was appointed governor of Bengal in 1637, and kept good control over that turbulent province for the next two decades. The army of Shah Shuja, especially his artillery, created havoc and at one stage it appeared as if the army of Shah Shuja would emerge victorious. Aurangzeb wrote to Murad from the Deccan that he should not engage the imperial forces before Aurangzeb joins him. Aurangzeb came to power after winning the war of succession and by defeating his three brothers a) Dara b) Shuja c) Askari d) Murad. According to Ishtiyaq Quraishi, “the Rajputs rallied around Dara”. Shah Jahan had four sons born of Mumtaz Mahal. Thus confusion was created. Next day the battle started. Even if it was not it was quite strategic on the part of Aurangzeb – Mir Jumla had huge wealth and artillery. Thirdly. Aurangzeb’s nishan to Rana Raj Singh of Mewar leaves us in no doubt that the head of the most illustrious house in Rajasthan was in sympathy with Aurangzeb. Ultimately Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh also came to support him. Thus in the light of the above evidence, put forward by Athar Ali, the religious issue was not at all involved in the War of succession. Aurangzeb thus tried to placated all the powerful sections of the nobility and it was perhaps having in view this consideration that he appointed both Jaswant Singh and Jai Singh to the highest rank of 7000/7000. Aqil Khan Razi further says that the three brothers maintained contacts with each other for appropriate action. The entire bag and baggage and the artillery of the vanquished came into the hands of Aurangzeb. Dara guarded all known ferries at Chambal so that Aurangzeb should be prevented from crossing the river. When Aurangzeb's father, Shah Jahan, died, he left behind a situation that was to be relatively healthy, but faithful to the usual quarrels of succession, his Mughal sons did not know how to take over. Bahadur Shah marched out for Rajputana and reached Amber in January 1708. In fact he says that the Hindus had benefited from the policy of tolerance of Akbar and were getting out of hand and even persecuting the Muslims. This made Shahjahan unpopular vis-à-vis the nobility. In 1673, at the instance of Jahanara Begum, Sikihr Shikoh, son of Dara, was released from the prison in 1673, given a mansab , and married a daughter of Aurangzeb. [11], On 20 December 1708, Kam Bakhsh marched towards Talab-i-Mir Jumla, on the outskirts of Hyderabad, with "three hundred camels, [and] twenty thousand rockets" for war with Shah. But Jaswant Singh turned down the proposal. Now the question is how did the nobles, who were participating in the war of succession on various sides, took this? As Aurangzeb started from the Deccan, it was natural that he got the support of the 11Marathas. [7] In April 1708, Shah's envoy Malabar Khan came to Kam Bakhsh's court. All this was naturally going to strain the economic resources of the empire and lead to scarcity. The truth is that such succession wars were very common in the Mughal Empire. The Hindus and Muslims had their own differences and their separatist tendencies destroyed the unity of command, which was essential to success. So the promise which he gave to the nobles was that the declared policy had to be translated into action. Aurangzeb started from the Deccan while Murad converged from Gujarat. Moreover, we should remember that if a person opposed the Mughal state, he was always defined as a ‘heretic’. The Blog of Aligarh Society of History and Archaeology [ASHA]. [12], At sunrise the following day, Shah's army charged towards Kam Bakhsh. As Dara was in the capital, it was obvious that he would get the support of those nobles who happened to be at the court. This imposed a restriction on the policy of Aurangzeb in dealing with the nobles. Hindu members of the Mughal court such as poet Chandra Bhan Brahman saw Aurangzeb’s victory in the War of Succession as a natural development that did not alter the cause of the Mughal Empire. Shahjahan also promoted his sons to a rank of 15,000 and 10,000 respectively. To quote him: “It was also deemed necessary to find out an effective slogan for the war and the cry that was raised was the defence of the law of Islam from the heresies of Dara, whether Shahjahan was alive or dead. The same information is supplied to us by Khafi Khan [II,ii]. The letter which Aurangzeb wrote to his brother to effect an alliance with him is cited by Bernier: “I need not remind you, my brother, how repugnant to my real disposition are the toils of government. This was a public declaration: deviation from a tolerant policy was a sin. [10] In July, the garrison at the Gulbarga fort declared its independence and garrison leader Daler Khan Bijapuri "reported his desertion from Kam Bakhsh". Unfortunately Shah Shuja thought it to be a trick of Aurangzeb and did not launch a simultaneous attack as was expected. Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. When Aurangzeb asked the Shaikh to pray for him as he was going to fight a mulhid, the mystic diplomatically replied, “Whatever wish of God, will be implemented”. But the succession war after Aurangzeb’s death certainly did not help matters. Conclusion: The mighty Mughal Empire began to decline after the death of Aurangzeb. Mirza Raja Jai Singh frustrated all military attempts of Dara Shukoh and did not join before the Battle of Samugarh. The governorships of Bihar, Multan and Punjab were also bestowed on Dara. Weakness of the Nobility: Mughal’s noble were well known for their loyalty but war of successor degenerated the nobility. The War of Succession & Aurangzeb’s Victory. Wars of Succession: Prolong war of succession fractured the administrative unit of Mughal’s. Thus a mere difference of only three. Had it been the real cause, or the cause believed by the contemporaries, Muslims should not have supported Dara, or the Hindus Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb left Aurangabad on 5th February assuming royal prerogatives, i.e., distributing mansabs etc. Amongst the followers of Aurangzeb were Iranis, Turanis, Rajputs and Marathas as under Dara. Further these figures of Athar Ali show that out of the 124 nobles of 1000 zat and above, who are known to have been supporting Aurangzeb uptil the Battle of Samugarh, 27 or 21.7 % were Iranis, 4 out of them holding rank of 5000 zat and above. Should the emperor be still alive, they would free him from the thraldom and tyranny of that idolator. Mir Jumla and Shaistah Khan were with Aurangzeb; Shahnawaz Khan Safawi was with Dara. While previously, wars were fought after the death of the emperor, this war was fought when Shah Jahan was yet alive. Aurangzeb raised the religious slogan to justify the execution of Dara after his enthronement. However this sound advice was turned down and not heeded by Dara Shukoh. Two hours later Kam Bakhsh's camp was surrounded, and Zulfiqar Khan impatiently attacked him with his "small force". (Vir Vinod, II, pp. Because once Aurangzeb takes position firmly, it would be difficult. The result was that he was brought up in adverse circumstances. Login . He desisted to do anything when confusion reign in the ranks of the enemy. While Dara and Sultan Sujah are tormented with a thirst for dominion, I sigh only for the life of a Fakire. These acts of Shahjahan were natural: there was nothing wrong in it. He argued that as he himself was the most effective person he should ascend the throne, his father having been proved a weak ruler. Although his health improved but not quite satisfactorily. Two other separate armies were mustered: one under the command of Maharaja Jaswant Singh and another under Qasim Khan. His second son Muhammad Azam Shah lived in Ahmednagar in present-day India. Nowhere throughout his account does he refer to Dara’s heresy as a cause for the war of succession. And his appointment was again a concession to the Hindus and the Rajputs. While the four sons Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Bux fought against each other, the sisters allied themselves … Both of them were very important Rajput nobles, who in fact represented the Rajput community. Secondly it was a well established convention that a prince could fight a Mughal prince. For Ishtiyaq H. Quraishi also the war of succession was a tussle between the liberal policy of Akbar and the Orthodoxy. It was this victory which bestowed the crown of the Mughal empire to Aurangzeb. He made strategic mistakes. Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. It was a hotly contested battle. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession began amongst his three surviving sons, Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat, and Kam Baksh-the governor of Deccan. By the end of Aurangzeb’s reign, Hindus formed 50% of the Mughal bureaucracy. Aurangzeb on the other hand did not declare himself as the king but declared his intention to proceed to meet his ailing father. The manifesto which he issued during the war of succession proclaimed that Shahjahan had ceased to be an effective ruler and had no right to rule while Aurangzeb being a more rigorous person was entitled to ascend the throne. He too was a general whose bravery was beyond doubt: Kazim Shirazi testifies to his bravery as well. Incidentally we should remember that before the Battle of Samugarh, the charges of heresy against Dara were not so freely used. Dara made a servant, who resembled the emperor to appear on the jharokha, and took this opportunity to consolidate his own position. Aurangzeb issued a nishan to Rana Raj Singh. But then, the entire blame for this defeat of Dara at Dharmat does not rest with Raja Jaswant Singh. Shah Jahan fell ill in 1657, when Aurangzeb was in his late 30s, and a war of succession ensued among the four adult princes. Khafi Khan suggested that whoever reached the capital city of Agra first would capture the throne. Prince Hasim Mirza at Khandesh With his Only Brother Imam and Support By Nadira Begum the chief consort Of Mughal Empire (Khandesh), This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 20:00. Aurangzeb and Murad defeated the combined forces of Qasim and Jaswant Singh, who fled from the battlefield. Names of wars that have been given names by historians are capitalised; the others, whose existence has been proven but not yet given a specific name, are provisionally written in lowercase letters (except for the first word, geographical and personal names). When he reached Ajmer, Jaswant Singh did not come forward to help him. His army was alswo taken over by Aurangzeb. Had Dara not arrested them, they would have written to their masters that the king was ill but alive. View all posts by nadeemrezavi. But Aurangzeb sent a nishan to him. Dara Shukoh was a traitor within the Islamic political community who sought to open the gates fully to the Hindus. For example, the withdrawal of Mughal contingents from Bijapur campaign in 1657 through which Dara had harmed the larger interests of the empire and exposed Aurangzeb and his troops to danger. Consort - Nizam Bai (daughter Of Raja of Amber). Dara is not only incapable of reigning, but is utterly unworthy of the throne, in as much as he is a Kafir – an idolator – and held in abhorrence by all the great Omrahs. Out of these, Jai Singh was the viceroy of the Deccan, Jaswant Singh was the governor of Gujarat, while Raja Raghunath was the Diwan. Secondly there was an absence of the rule of succession, the monarchy being not an Islamic set-up. Rana Raj Singh also did not come to the help of Dara Shukoh or Shahjahan. The only accusation with a religious colour is “his actions are always contrary to (the principles) of the country and the people”. He was a Khatri. Jos Gommans, Professor of Colonial and Global History at the University of Leiden,says that "... the highpoin… The war of succession which took place among the four sons of Shah Jahan had one novelty. Due to this, Dara was deprived of the best trained army which accompanied the Raja. This lunatic phase of old histories had not come to an end when Iftikhar Muhammad Khan Ghori of Pakistan called this ‘wos’ an ideological conflict between the Sunnis and the Shi’as. Dara, being an experienced person, got the wakils (agents) of the princes arrested and imprisoned so that hey could not send news to their masters. At this stage the Mirza Raja intervened and warned that if Jaswant Singh supported Dara Shukoh, his clan would be ruined. And there were far reaching consequences of this. It was for the first time after the establishment of the Mughal rule in India that the reigning sovereign was arrested and imprisoned. He made his son Jahandar Shah commander of the advance guard, later replacing him with Khan Zaman. Consort - Najib begum (Daughter Of Wali ahd Azam shah). The Bundelas too were hostile to Shahjahan. Thus the attempt made by Aurangzeb for expansion was bound to be a failure. There was a dispute for the succession to this state, i.e. [1] The distances to Agra from Jamrud and Ahmednagar were 715 and 700 miles, respectively. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb died in 1707 after a 49-year reign without officially declaring a crown prince. One can say that in this document or public declaration, Aurangzeb spelled out his policy on which he fought. This was as the nobles were not under the impression that they were fighting for tolerance or intolerance; or that it was a struggle between Hindus or Muslims. On getting this intelligence, Ibrahim Khan s/o Ali Mardan Khan Amirul Umara advised Dara that before the forces of Aurangzeb collected or discipline themselves this side of the river, attack should be launched immediately. Nor was it one of the major reasons. At the time of his death his eldest son Bahadur Shah I inhabited Jamrud, 12 miles west of Peshawar in present-day Pakistan. 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