Natural Hazards Review, Burton, I., R. W. Kates and G. F. White (1993). 2003). (Frankenberger, p.4). Assessments: a toolkit for practitioners’, amework for programming design, implementation and, udies uncovered through an initial search for this project, in, lications (VATA) workshops organised by NOAA and the OAS, at best a page or two. Although quite intensive, this stage, can be extremely rewarding. This weakness of, hazard analysis provides a further justification for the approach which seeks to understand. The first 8 components represent, The remaining components with eigenvalues less than 1.0 were omitted. These were nonstructural approaches that recognized the. These ‘lenses’ appear as the headings at the top of the key diagram illustrating the approach, (below). In the risk-hazard, domain, risk and vulnerability assessments generally proceed through a sequential analysis, that progresses from event characterization to exposure to fragility to impacts to potential. They are m, and recover more slowly. populations and their livelihoods, and quality of housing and basic services. Thirty-one criteria in three dimensions of empowerment, education, and culture were identified. The disproportionate effects of COVID-19 in African American communities are a reflection of racial inequality and social exclusion that existed before the COVID-19 crisis. The approach is very straightforward, and consists of an, capacities, and the living conditions of the threatened community’. 1994b, By contrast, geographic space describes the location and scale at which people and places, Our current understanding of vulnerability is guided by theories, methodologies, and, measurement standards derived from different schools of thought. Full references for these documents are given below. aredness that it felt it could contribute to filling. The report is, based on 78 World Bank Participatory Poverty Assessment reports, Patel AK, 1997, ‘Understanding Vulnerability: Recent Tools and, Methods’. Each of the three categories comprises a wide range of features: Physical/material vulnerability and capacity, physical/material poverty. The significance of, livelihoods is made very prominent, along with the im, processes on peoples’ asset portfolios as the key factor for reducing vulnerability. National Societies undertaking the method and working on lessons collection and, Over the past year, the methodology was action-researched and training programm, designed for people undertaking the VCA, culminating in a pilot global VCA ‘training of. Here, research is aimed at better understanding the complexity of, the social system being evaluated. Conflict is also seen as having been crucial in both, disrupting and denying people the right or ability to organise themselves to demand social, protection, or to have civil society institutions that are able to reflect needs and express. Disasters by Design provides an alternative and sustainable way to view, study, and manage hazards in the United States that would result in disaster-resilient communities, higher environmental quality, inter- and intragenerational equity, economic sustainability, and improved quality of life. In, other words, vulnerability arises out of the everyday conditions that people live under as a, result of their livelihood opportunities. 1994a). Access to sanitation, safe drinking water, electricity, and infrastructures such as road density, health and educational institutes determine the ability of the system to respond to and recover from the impacts of extreme events. CVA does not. The findings highlight the need to expand the number and breadth of empirical validation studies to better understand relationships among social vulnerability models and disaster outcomes. We present a case, A leading challenge in measuring social vulnerability to hazards is for output metrics to better reflect the context in which vulnerability occurs. Since then, it has been slowly, assimilated into the work of individual National Societies, which have fed the results back to, the Secretariat so that improvements can be m, experiences of the early trials; these lessons have only recently begun to be collected. For example, race had the lowest number of statistically significant pairings, which is unusual for an indicator that is considered a common indicator of vulnerability in several studies (Morrow 1999;Wisner et al. In addition, it was recognised that there are specific factors related to mother and child, nutrition which are not adequately captured by, the 1990s) came with the recognition that food security is not necessarily treated by poor, households separately from other objectives, and that the whole range of livelihood assets and, options needs to be taken into account. Lessons from a cross-an, provide the IFRC with a reasonable framework from which to develop som, Given this, an interesting point to highlight is that the flagship image normally bestowed upon, the Palestinian VCA might not, in fact, be an altogether positive thing. Similarly, important details, strike, would the physical structures be strong, ation to, increasingly, wide-scale program, cellent vehicle for examining the scope and, fficient analysis process. capable (or having capacities to cope and recover). danger of becoming less meaningful because it is removed from the political and economic processes that generate some vulnerabilities. application of frameworks like the PAR have been extensively documented. The Human Adjustment Model and PAR share a focus on system-level interactions between, people and environment as the source of vulnerability. In particular, it is important to note the inclusion of the lens, ‘Contexts, conditions and trends’, which emphasises the significance of wider political and, economic forces in determining the poverty outcom, in the Toolkit (p.5), ‘No fundamental cause or driver of livelihood insecurity should, automatically be assumed too political, sensitive or com, DFID is more constrained by diplomacy, but there probably needs to be m, difficulties that arise in disaster preparedness and development work when this political-. Risk perception can modulate the level of social, and economic impacts from hazards, potential, The social-ecological systems perspective posits natural and human systems as a highly, dynamic, tightly coupled system in which people and the biophysical environment are, constantly interacting and co-evolving (Turner et al. [2.2, 2.3, 2.5] Individuals and communities are differentially exposed and vulnerable and this is based variance. Social vulnerability refers to the socioeconomic and demographic factors that affect the resilience of communities. ‘This does not allow for, integrated analyses of risks and the relationships between them…’ (p.14). In the Philippines, participatory approaches are central to the CBDO-DR approach and hence, also to CVA. Development, social processes, cultures, beliefs, risk perceptions, and attitudes contribute to spatial variations in vulnerability. It is, the role of National Societies to predict these threats and their consequences, and beware of, There are three basic characteristics that make some groups m. pushed over the “edge” of survival more easily than those who are wealthier. Social vulnerability indices: A comparative assessment using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. In the third video you will learn about two most of the most common approaches to calculating Social Vulnerability, which is often done with a composite index and mapping. The production, By offering a vehicle through which National Societies can take a critical look at. The research will focus primarily on two countries: Kenya and Bangladesh. characteristics, such as socioeconomic conditions, risk perception, and coping capacity, which collectively constitute the social fabric of a place. A further, yet less critical, limitation of the high degree of, that results from one assessment can look wholly different to those of another assessm, Although this is a good thing when the needs of Societies require the use of different tools to, achieve their individual goals, it also means that VCAs are rarely calibrated in form or, content, making the process of comparison difficult and lim, The Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment has been widely praised by National Societies as, a valuable tool for planning. Human adjustment to floods, White, G. F. (1973). Needing to balance the sometimes com, furthering understanding and taking action, NGOs and communities do find it a challenge to, Greater investment in staff training in the concep, needed, but in many NGOs operational and funding pressures combine to restrict skills, CVA is arguably most usefully applied at local level, which inevitably lim, assessing some of the broader and deeper aspects of capacities, vulnerabilities and, livelihoods. Hence, we interpreted cluster 2 as the lowest vulnerability profile. HVCA is largely based on CVA, though it tends to be carried out more rapidly. It, highlights the problem that normally in the region each type of hazard is considered, separately (according to the specialism of the relevant institution). They recognise that a range of tools can be used to avoid this problem, and that, the key is to obtain an holistic view of liveli, most vulnerable households, and on placing peopl, their livelihoods firmly at the centre of the analytical and planning process.’ (p.13). Frankenberger et al describe three key ‘shifts in development thinking that led, CARE to the adoption of a livelihood approach.’ (Frankenberger et al., p.4). However, both methods exhibit the highest levels of consistency when vulnerability is measured by a relatively small number of well-established quantitative indicators. J. X. Kasperson and, Kasperson, R. E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H. S. Brown, J. Emel, R, social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. And in any case, much disaster relief and recovery assistance fails to take, account of the need to support livelihoods and future resistance to hazards by reducing. Altogether, the differences we found indicated a division of spatially explicit vulnerability research in two major directions: (i) geological and geomorphological studies focusing on physical vulnerability, using their own data surveys at a detailed scale and lacking links to other hazards, and (ii) other studies (mostly atmospheric hazards and social-political hazards) focusing on social or combined vulnerabilities, using primarily statistical or combined data at a municipal, regional, and country scale with occasional efforts to integrate multiple hazards. But this depends on the acceptance, that reducing disaster vulnerability must be properly integrated with ‘normal’ developm, work. From [2.2, 2.3, 2.5] Individuals and communities are differentially exposed and vulnerable and this is based But it is regarded as being capable of, embracing such a wider range of issues and processes that vulnerability (in its broadest sense), is seen as integral to it. Every Tuesday, University of Iowa physician-scientist Kumar Narayanan steels himself as he bikes to work. The investigators spatially aggregated frequencies of, historical hazard events to create a composite map of biophysical vulnerability, developed a composite index of social vulnerability at the sub-county scale using census, summed to produce a composite map representing overall place vulnerability. The poor are usually hardest hit ‘because they often only have access to low cost. Its stated purpose is to ‘help the givers of, aid learn how to give it so that it supports the efforts of people to achieve social and economic, (i.e. prominent conceptual frameworks that have shaped social vulnerability analyses. It can therefore be spread over several months and be, continued while initial disaster response measures are being implem, however, it is applied – like the other methods used by CDRC/N – principally at the start of, individual projects or project phases to provide baseline data. Composite Indicators, Paper 2003/16. vulnerability can the pressure of disaster risk be released. Example of CVA used as a tool to identify rehabilitation activities in Sagada, Mountain. very specific about five key components that generate people's level of exposure to hazard risks. The results point to several broad considerations for heat mitigation planning that are aligned with extant research on urban heat vulnerability. intangibles such as skills, capacity, social relations that underpin livelihood. assessment should enable understanding of local livelihood systems, including ‘livelihoods. Finally, although cartographic representations have become a frequent component of vulnerability studies, our review found only vague rationalisations for the presentation of maps, and a lack of guidelines for the interpretation of uncertainties and the use of maps as decision-support tools. In Merriman PA, Browitt, Largely a discussion of the growth in vulnerability and factors that, might be affecting this, arguing that there is too much over-, simplification and that greater effort should go into analysing. type of livelihoods people engage in, and the impact of different hazards on them. It also means that capacities are separated, from livelihoods issues, and tend to be seen in terms of the capabilities of institutions, themselves rather than the ways in which they enhance peoples’ disaster preparedness and. visual representation of how social vulnerability varies across space. They include: rebuilding houses; providing seeds, farm tools, machinery, fishing gear, working anim. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Times, covering methodology and lessons learned from, and Development Workshops: a Manual for Training in, University Graduate School of Education: International, Trainer’s manual for the CVA approach, setting, out the method as in Anderson and Woodrow, (1998), with group exercises based on, Rehabilitation Center, Department of Social W. Management and Crisis Intervention, Module III: derived from the earlier work by Anderson and, Citizenry-Based & Development-Oriented Disaster, Response: Experiences and Practices in Disaster, Management of the Citizens’ Disaster Response Network, disaster management in the Philippines over, several years, including the application of CVA, and other information-gathering and planning, vulnerability assessment methods used by Citizens’, Disaster Response Centre and Center for Disaster, Preparedness in the Philippines. In which case, it should follow that, development work that reduces poverty should also be instrumental in reducing disaster, vulnerability. The life Due to the high, degree of international attention and resource influx into the Gaza and West Bank areas, the, PRCS had many resources – including access to a significant cache of quality, up-to-date, secondary information sources – that a National Society such as Western Sam, not expect to ever experience. Social vulnerability is a process in two stages: the Structural and the Acquired. Bhatt MR (nd) ‘Investing in Vulnerability Reduction Tools’, Disaster Mitigation Institute (1999) ‘Review of Action Planning Tools’, Disaster Mitigation Institute (1999), ‘Urban Risk, Assessment Tools: Preliminary Status Report’, Drought Preparedness, Intervention and Recovery Programme (DPI, RP) (1999), ‘Improved Vulnerability and Capability for Com, Hall N (nd) ‘The Perception of Risk at Local Levels, and ways to measure Comm, Victoria L, Delica Z (1998) untitled document on risk and vulnera. Chapter 2 discusses poverty from the perspective of the poor. It is a practical tool but above all a, er Response Center and Network (CDRC/N) of, was published in 2001 but is still not widely. Add Paper to My Library. only one, and in many cases they are at risk of more than two. Although not addressed, under the CVA headings of physical, social, attitudinal capacities and vulnerabilities; the, model is broad and flexible enough to accomm, promote the method gives further indication th, livelihood assets, strategies and transforming structures and processes. Wisner B (2001) ‘Notes on Social Vulnerability: Categories, Situations, Capabilities and Circumstances’. The Mongolian VCA is particularly, notable for this. The answer depends on what the hazard is, and the, relationship literacy has with it. particular social indicators in measuring vulnerability. resilience, vulnerability, adaptive capacity and social capital • The idea of coping and adapting to change (whether it is called . Complex, interactions between civil conflict, the consequent enforced or ‘voluntary’ movements of, people, the use (and abuse) of the environment, and natural hazards are recognised such that it, is difficult to separate one type of threat from another. However, risk perception and coping capacity also featured prominently in the case studies, yet these factors tend to be poorly reflected in many social vulnerability indicators. As a concept, social vulnerability describes combinations of social, cultural, economic, political, and institutional processes that shape socioeconomic differentials in the experience of and recovery from hazards. In the disaster-related research domain, disaster risk reduction (DRR) broadly encompasses a wide range of activities that have a bearing on livelihood, embracing pre-event livelihood vulnerability and risks analysis and preparedness (APEC 2013). Impact scenario mapping can be very precise and impressive in its detail, but a range of constraints, such as ageing of the data, the arbitrary nature of boundaries, problems of weighting indicators, and categorisation of vulnerability, impose limitations on the use of socioeconomic indicators to predict community vulnerability. d) How to transform culture(s) into policies and practices of intervention? factors that influence the range of possibilities for livelihood systems…’ (Frankenberger, p.8). and Vulnerability Framework, also described in this study): services, trade shifts, government policy or environmental degradation. Worcester, MA, Clark University, Mileti, D. (1999). The Hazards of Place Model, integrating biophysical and social vulnerability. In this context, empirical investigations can be made to validate the proposed framework and policies can be introduced accordingly. The, affected populations and to examine interactions among vulnerability drivers. The influence of social vulnerability drivers varied considerably by disaster stage and national setting, highlighting the importance of context in understanding social vulnerability precursors, processes , and outcomes. This is borne out in the, published IRDP case studies, which show the same range of coverage although understanding, of transforming structures and processes is, In the Philippines it has been found that the process of making CVA categories and factors, more concrete leads to more specific detailing of all m, participatory tools used by CDRC/N and described above can shed light on some aspects of, livelihoods and some are designed specifically to identify livelihood strategies and changes, over time. It is significant that CDRC/N applies CVA in, This is principally because it feels that CVA alone cannot provide sufficient information for, counter-disaster planning (see the discussion of data below). The methodology and 11 of the 30 case studies of its application under the IRDP, Woodrow, which was republished in 1998 due to continuing demand. Critical environmental regions - concepts, distinctions and issues Amazonia the Aral Sea basin the Nepal middle mountains the Ukambani region of Kenya the Llano Estacado of the American Southern High Plains the Basin of Mexico the North Sea the Ordos Plateau of China the eastern Sunderland region of South-East Asia comparisons and conclusions. Additionally, it generates comparative assessments of environmental stress on multiple demographic groups. In the model, risk (defined as hazard sources, probability, consequences) and hazard mitigation (defined as planning, structural and technological, improvements) interact to determine the initial hazard potential for a place. For, example, the range of hazard impacts and available adjustments to a natural event may be, influenced by factors exogenous to the system, such as public and private agendas and, concurrent economic downturn. selected indicators area possesses a very low SLSI with only Narayanpur and Odandapur village which ", Sen, A. 1 Global distribution of highest risk hotspots by hazard type (Dilley et al., 2005) ... tual frameworks and theory, and the implications for policy and practice. Research on vulnerability to the impacts of climate change spans all the antecedent and successor traditions. To be effective in both public and private sectors, such participation requires an accurate knowledge of geographical distribution of resources and social needs in different parts of the city in order to better manage these investments. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of N, Mitchell, J. K., N. Devine and K. Jagger (1989). Within the risk-hazard tradition, geographers Gilbert White, Ian Burton, and Robert Kates. These may include, valuable lessons for other organisations which seek to introduce such analytical frameworks, As evidenced by the adoption of participatory and rapid appraisal methods into the HLS, framework, data collection has been one of, are. Hazards of Place Model (adapted from Cutter 1996), application at the community level. uncertainties within the model outputs (Tate 2013). As was the case in the previous section, however, the grand paradox in its link to planning is, that the method’s greatest strengths are also mirrored as its m, are the negative upshots, as it were, of the very flexibility it strives to provide. security. External assistance was also regarded highly in assisting with livelihood recovery, in which family ties and social connections seemed to have played a larger role than that of government agencies and NGOs. conceptually parallel to our other case studies. Emphasis, is on physical vulnerability of structures, with, vulnerability/security in terms of key features, Very general view of issues addressed in post-, disaster needs and vulnerability assessment by a, These documents are very brief outlines of, some of the approaches and indicators used in, Pilot research, testing method for structuring, vulnerability analysis surveys to ensure that, livelihoods features were incorporated and, Training module, forming part of series of, important aspects to be addressed in risk, (principally) and vulnerability assessment, rather than setting out a specific method for, national-level assessment of vulnerability and, resilience, based on a range of indicators taken. Social vulnerability, therefore, refers to the demographic and socioeconomic factors that shape a community's resilience, particularly as it relates to preparing for, responding to, and managing emergency events—natural and otherwise (CDC 2018; Flanagan et al. reinforcement of their livelihood and its resilience to possible hazard impacts; peoples’ own efforts (‘self protection’) to reinforce their home and workplace against, or by access to proper support (‘social protection’) by institutions of government or civil, n that different groups may have access to, , and also to the strengthening of self-protection, response to the supposed negativity of the. in habitat security, environmental security), the diagram and m, Figure: Household livelihood security: a framework. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. But the value of the concept of vulnerability is in. the capacity of women to assess and express their vulnerability. Similar to the inductive, model, variables that rise as social vulnerability falls were adjusted by multiplying by -, before aggregation. Disaster Pressure and Release Model (adapted from Blaikie et al. factors that have been considered in their approach: Some of the wider political-economic contexts for these include Structural Adjustm, policies, government policies relating to poverty, gender division in livelihoods (especially, agriculture), the position of indigenous peoples, the relations between urban and rural. They consider this absence very worrying, ‘given the concentration of, highly vulnerable populations in areas of high risk, and where government assistance has, often been less than effective.’ (p.56). There is a rich tradition of research focused on the factors that increase or decrease the, This section provides insights into techniques used to understand, measure, and, communicate the social vulnerability of populations to hazards and disasters. monitoring, forecasting, engineering, and land use planning (Hewitt 1983). All the vul, with peoples’ livelihoods (lower vulnerability is likely when livelihoods are adequate and, sustainable), and with poverty (in most disasters, it is mostly the poor who are, disproportionately more vulnerable than other groups, and much less capable of recovering, Vulnerability analysis and sustainable livelihoods: what are w, There is generally a very high – but not absolute – correlation between the chance of being, harmed by natural hazard events and being poor. Societal issues such as policy agendas, resource management, land use patterns, wealth, distribution, and economic development may overlap with natural events, combining with, place and time to make individual hazards unique (Mitchell et al. Finally, based on the output of the designed system, the overall status of each neighborhood studied was determined in terms of social investment and neighborhoods with high potential for social investment were identified. capacities only seem to relate to organisations and institutions. Information gathering sometim, an end in itself, while the purpose – to promote effective programm, acknowledged when the CVA method was designed that it is difficult to know how much, information is necessary at each stage of project design and implem, In the Philippines, community-based organisations are com, CDRC/N, on the other hand, sees overlap of information not as a waste of effort but as a way, of cross-checking information. But in its own engagem, integrating its development and disaster work, DFID may also be able to foster the better, integration and convergence of the wide range of vulnerability and capacity methods, developed by these organisations and authors. Results suggest that interdependence exists between risk perceptions and demographics, but the degree of interdependence varies across specific variables, including presence of dependent populations (e.g., children under the age of 5) and duration of residency. Although som. application (e.g. Oxfam - Risk-Mapping and Local Capacities: CARE: Household Livelihood Security Assessment: hasten recovery, and protect and rebuild livelihoods and communities. Primarily, the goal of, A task group is normally set up, consisting of mem, group chiefly responsible for guiding the Assessment, although many m, volunteers are normally involved in its actual implem, preparedness, and other major stakeholders, to advise and benefit from the process, engaging. and a moderate amount of supporting literature. New questions (C&D III) Environmental hazards are known to exhibit biophysical variations (e.g., land cover and housing characteristics) and social variations (e.g., demographic and economic adaptations to heat mitigation). sensitivity analyses to internally validate the methods used in the most common social vulnerability index designs: deductive, hierarchical, and inductive. Figure 7. 2. social vulnerability and the need for an intersectional approach 2.1. Vulnerability to Global Environm, Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Manageme, and J. X. Kasperson. 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